ISSN : 2233-3746
E-ISSN : 2720-782X
General Rules on Formatting the Manuscript
Structure of the manuscript should be developed not only through numeration of chapters, but also subtitles of issues to be discussed. When dividing an article in chapters, subchapters and sub-subchapters Arabic numerals should be used, e.g.: 1.; 1.1.; 1.1.1. etc., introduction and conclusions should be given separately.
Text mainly should be in third person. When expressing the position, the Author should try to avoid narration in first person.
The Author should refer to the source of the citations and other factual circumstances in the footnotes. At least 4/5 of the total number of scientific sources referred to in the paper should be produced in one of the Western European languages, except for exceptional cases due to the specifics of the topic.
Sources of the manuscript should be cited as footnotes. The conclusion of the paper should be followed by the cited literature enlisted as a bibliography.
No abridgements of words, names and titles are allowed in text and in footnotes, except for the universally known ones (e. g., paragraph — §, for example – e.g., reference – ref., etc.).
If the manuscript includes abbreviation, first, the full version of the term should be provided, and later abbreviation may be occupied in parentheses (e.g., German Civil Code (hereafter “GCC”)). Accordingly, frequently used names of conventions, laws, etc., should be shortened by using keywords, i.e. in the initial stage, the full title must be given, and then keywords in parentheses (e. g., EU Convention for Human Rights (hereafter “the Convention”)).
All words, except for the connecting words, propositions and articles, mentioned in footnote should start with the capital letter. (e. g., Kuester E. L., Confidentiality in Mediation, A Trial of Broken Promises, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, Vol. 16, № 2, 1994-1995, 579).
Footnotes should necessarily observe the unified system. The Author and the title of their publication should be emphasized as follows: Surname and the first letter of the given name of the Author must be italicized; the rest of the information is never given in italic script. Editor’s surname and the first letter of the given name must also be italicized, and abbreviated to “ed.” or “eds.” Each bibliographic unit (except for the surname and initial of the first name) should be separated by a comma. At the end of each footnote, the full stop is required.
The direct citation should be given in quotes. In the case of periphrasis or when referring to a source used while stating an independent option, the following phrases are to be used: “See citation, See” or “Compare, Comp.”. “Compare” is mentioned when comparing two different, independent opinions.
In the main text, it is allowed to refer to the information or analysis necessary for achieving the objectives of the manuscript relating to the title of the paper directly or indirectly. Further information can be stated in the footnote.
If the paper does not aim at researching the etymology of the term, foreign words and phrases (provided in the language other than English) must be referred to a footnote.
For Georgian text „lower“ and „upper“ quotation marks should be used, whilst for the foreign language texts only “upper” quotation marks are needed.
All punctuation marks concluding the sentence (including a full stop, a comma, a question or exclamation mark, etc.) must be used before the quotation mark. Punctuation marks mab be used after a quotation mark, if the latter belongs to the specific term or specific phrase. When a particular word simultaneously concentrates a quotation mark along with a punctuation and a footnote sign, the following order must be observed: 1. a quotation mark; 2. a punctuation mark; 3. a footnote sign. At the end of the direct citation: 1. a punctuation mark; 2. a quotation mark; 3. a footnote sign. It is impossible to write two quotation marks simultaneously. In the case of parentheses, different styles may be employed.
The text should distinguish the use of the dash and the hyphen. The first one is a short line (-), with no interval before and after; the second is a longer line (―), so an interval is necessary before and after. When referring to the previous source in the footnote, the following rule is to be taken into account:
A) Exact the source mentioned in the preceding footnote: refer only “Ibid.”. If necessary, afterward, please, indicate different data (volume, year, page);
B) When using a source previously mentioned but if not the preceding one, the full bibliographic elements must be indicated.
1. Palo G. D., Trevor M. B. (eds.), EU Mediation Law and Practice, Great Britain, Oxford University Press, 2012, 118.
2. Ibid, 158-159 (which means, that the source is the same, however, the pages are different).
3. Ibid. (which means, that the source along with the pages are all the same).
Formatting the Footnote
Rule № 1. Full name of the act, as well as date must be given. In the footnotes, it is important to refer to the specific article/clause/section, the source, where it was published as well as the page and the date.
Constitution of Georgia, Departments of Parliament, 31-33, 24/08/1995.
Constitution of Spain, 31/10/1978.
Rule № 2. In the case of citing the annulled act, at the end of the footnote (see Rule № 1), please, indicate “annulled and the date of abolishment” in parentheses.
Georgian Law on “Public Service”, Article 7, Departments of Parliament, 45, 21/11/1997 (annulled, 27/10/2015).
The following is required:
For a book – The surname and the first letter of the given name of the Author (in Italic script), title of the book (without quotation marks), number of the part (if provided), section, volume (if provided), place of publication, year of publication, page number (without “p”.). If the literature is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
For the translated sources – After referring to the surname and the first letter of the given name of the Author as well as the title of the publication, translator’s surname and the first letter of the given name must be provided in Italic script followed by the abbreviation in parentheses “( or transl.)”. If provided, please, identify the surname(s) and the first letter(s) of given name(s) of the editor(s) in Italic script along with the abbreviation in parentheses “(ed. or eds.)”. If the literature is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
Turava P., General Administrative Law, 2nd ed., Tbilisi, 2018, 24 (in Georgian).
Kropholler J., German Civil Law Code, Darjania T., TcheTchelashvili Z. (trans.), Chachanidze E., Darjania T., Tortladze L. (eds.), 13th ed., Tbilisi, 2014, § 631, Abs. 1 (in Georgian).
Klaus H., Handbook on Probation Services, Rome, London, 1998, 15.
For the secondary sources – The source wherever the secondary source was found, should be cited at first. Please, distinguish the secondary source by the phrase: “see cit.:”. If the source is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
Eloshvili N., The Essence of Principle of Confidentiality in the Mediation Proceeding, Journal “Alternative Dispute Resolution – Yearbook 2013”, TSU Publishing, 2014, 32 (in Georgian), see cit.: Alfini J. J., Press S. B., Sternlight J. R., Stulberg J. B., Mediation Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., LexisNexsis, 2006, 222.
For articlesfrom the collection, it is important to mention the surname and the first letter of the given name of the Author (in Italic script), title of the article (without quotation marks), the title of the collection of articles (without the quotation marks), editor’s surname and the first letter of the given name in Italic script, section, volume (if necessary), place of publication, year of publication, page number (without “p”.). If the article is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
Burduli I., State Capital and its Functions, in the collection of articles: Theoretical and Practical Issues of Contemporary Corporate Law, Elizbarashvili N. (ed.), Tbilisi, 2009, 236.
Kennedy D., The Politics and Methods of Comparative Law, The Common Core of European Private Law, Essays on the Project, Mattei U., Bussani M. (eds.), Hague, 2002, 143.
For articlesfrom the journal (newspaper), it is important to refer to: Authors’ surname and the first letter of the given name (in Italic script), the title of the publication (without quotation marks), the title of the journal/newspaper (if the journal/newspaper is published in language other than Western European, quotation marks are needed), volume, issue, year (date), page number (without “p”). When referring to the foreign source, all bibliographic units must be indicated in language of the original, or in language in which it was available for the Author (with reference to an official translation). If the article is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
Mgeladze T., Piercing the Corporate Veil of Shareholder in German, US and Georgian Legal Doctrine, Journal of Law, № 2, 2018, 56-57.
Baindurashvili N., Specifics of the Civil Service Disputes, Legal Problems and Ways of their Resolution, Journal “Justice and Law”, № 3(38), 2013, 116 (in Georgian).
Akkermans B., Sustainable Property Law?, European Property Law Journal, Vol. 7, Issue 1, 2018, 1.
For the e-sources – Materials obtained through the Internet should have relevant web page and date of update. In the case of an article, surname along with the first letter of the given name of the Author (in Italic script), as well as article’s title, web page and date should be provided. E-address should be given in the triangle parentheses: <....>; date in the squire parentheses [....]. If the article is conducted in a language other than Western European, it is essential to provide information regarding the language of the original in parentheses, e.g.: (in Georgian), (in Russian).
Zhen Qu C., Ahl B., Lowering the Corporate Veil in Germany: a Case Note on BGH 16 July 2007 (Trihotel), Oxford U Comparative L Forum 4, 2008, <ouclf.iuscomp.org> [12.12.2018].
The National Parliamentary Library of Georgia, <http://www.nplg.gov.ge/gwdict/index.php?a=term&d=6&t=7413> [03.12.2019] (in Georgian).
International Judicial Decisions and Foreign Judgements:
When citing in text, titles of cases and decisions should be given in Italic script. A full version of the title can be indicated either in text, or in a footnote in the following order: Party vs. Party, year, publisher, page number (without “p”), the Court. Decisions, that are available in a language other than the Western European language, do not require additional information regarding the language of the original.
Court of Justice:
E.g.: Case 16/62, Van Gend en Loos,  ECR 95.
European Court of Human Rights:
E.g.: Kostovski v. The Netherlands,  ECHR (Ser. A.), 221.
International Court of Justice:
E.g.: Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions Between Qatar and Bahrain,  ICJ Reports.
In the text, e.g.: Case Argull v. Argyll.
In the footnote, e.g.: Argyll v. Argyll,  1Ch 302,324, 332.
In the text, e.g.: Case Brown v. Board of Education.
In the footnote, e.g.: Brown v. Board of Education, (1954), 347 US 483.
Decisions of Georgian Courts:
National standards for reference must be meticulously observed. In the absence of a consistent national approach, the Author should be guided by the following general rule: The foregoing occasions should be stated ― 1. A decision is published; 2. It is available via official e-source; 3. It is available only in the archive of the Georgian courts, and should be formulated unified approach.
Decision of July 14, 2016 № BS-184-183(K-16) of the Administrative Case Chamber of the Supreme Court of Georgia.
Decree and Enforcement Sheet № 2/5856-19 of March 25, 2019 of the Civil Case Chamber of the Tbilisi City Court.
Documents of International Organizations:
When citing documents issued and published by international organizations, an official reference style of the publisher should be applied (see, official web pages).
OECD, G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, OECD Publishing, Paris, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264236882-en> [03.12.2019].
Conventions and International Treaties:
When citing conventions and international treaties, it is important to indicate the title of the convention/treaty, article/section (if provided), the source, whether the convention/treaty was published, date of adoption and effective date, relevant page (if provided).
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, International Legal Materials, 1985, 1520.